The General Game Playing Description Language Is Universal
Michael Thielscher
The Game Description Language (GDL) has been developed to communicate the rules of arbitrary finite games to general game-playing systems, whose challenging task is to learn to play previously unknown games without human intervention. Originally restricted to deterministic games with complete information about the game state, the language was recently extended to include randomness and imperfect information. However, determining the extent to which this enhancement allows to describe truly arbitrary games was left as an open problem. We provide a positive answer to this question by relating the extended Game Description Language to the universal, mathematical concept of extensive-form games, proving that indeed just any such game can be described faithfully.