Lifted Probabilistic Inference by First-Order Knowledge Compilation
Guy Van den Broeck, Nima Taghipour, Wannes Meert, Jesse Davis and Luc de Raedt
Probabilistic logical languages provide powerful formalisms for knowledge representation and learning. Yet performing inference in these languages is extremely costly, especially if it is done at the propositional level. Lifted inference algorithms, which avoid repeated computation by treating indistinguishable groups of objects as one, help mitigate this cost. Seeking inspiration from logical inference, where lifted inference (e.g., resolution) is commonly performed, we develop a model theoretic approach to probabilistic lifted inference. Our algorithm compiles a first-order probabilistic theory into a first-order deterministic decomposable negation normal form (d-DNNF) circuit. Compilation offers the advantage that inference is polynomial in the size of the circuit. Furthermore, by borrowing techniques from the knowledge compilation literature our algorithm effectively exploits the logical structure (e.g., context-specific independencies) within the first-order model, which allows more computation to be done at the lifted level. An empirical comparison demonstrates the utility of the proposed approach.